White Paper on Safety Security 1998
It gives me great pleasure to present the government’s White
Paper for Safety and Security. The White Paper provides the means of realising
our vision of improving the safety of our citizens.
At the heart of the White Paper lies the challenge of
enhancing the transformation of the police so that they are able to function
effectively within the new democracy; and enhancing social crime prevention
activities to reduce the occurrence of crime. This requires, on the one hand,
focusing on issues relating to the role of the police within the constitutional
order, their legitimacy and the delivery of an effective service to the public.
On the other hand, this also requires a dedicated focus on preventing citizens
from becoming victims of crime.
The advent of democracy in April 1994 ushered in what is,
without doubt, the most optimistic era in the history of our country. Whereas
apartheid obliged policemen and policewomen to disregard the human rights of
fellow South Africans, they have now been offered a place of pride in the
process of building a new and better life for all. The advent of democracy
brought about the potential for unprecedented progress for our country and held
out the promise that our people would be able to live their lives in prosperous
The challenge of transformation addressed in this White Paper
is therefore, a call to the future. All South Africans, irrespective of the
role they played in the conflicts of the past, have the potential to contribute
positively to the process of change which is unfolding in our country.
In the immediate post-1994 period, the government’s policy
agenda on safety and security was shaped by two objectives: firstly, to
rehabilitate the police to ensure they became protectors of our communities;
and secondly, to mobilise our people to participate in the provision of safety
Critical to this process was the establishment of effective
mechanisms of civilian oversight to, firstly, support the Minister in providing
clear policy direction to the police and, secondly, to ensure, through
monitoring, that the police served the people of the country.
This initial policy direction was laid out in the 1994 Green
Paper, which emphasised three key policy areas – democratic control, police
accountability and community participation in issues of safety and security.
The Police Service Act of 1995 concretised these new policy objectives by,
amongst other things, establishing a Secretariat for Safety and Security.
Then in 1996, Government adopted the National Crime Prevention
Strategy (NCPS). The NCPS provided a framework for a multi-dimensional approach
to crime prevention. Amongst other things, the NCPS provided a means by which
government departments could integrate their approaches to problems of crime
control and crime prevention.
We have come a long way in meeting our initial objectives. We
have created a single police service from eleven separate police forces and
have succeeded in laying the foundation for making this police service
accountable and community-oriented. This was achieved by, amongst other things,
the demilitarisation of the rank structure of the new police service and the
appointment of skilled civilians into key positions in this service. We have
also established functioning mechanisms of civilian oversight and channels for
community participation. We have placed crime prevention firmly on Government’s
agenda and a structure dedicated to the implementation of the NCPS is now a
component of my department. We have also learnt a great deal in the last four
years and have received informed input from a wide variety of international and
The principles of the Green Paper and the NCPS continue to
frame the development of policy within the department. However the emphasis has
now shifted towards improved service delivery. This means that the Department’s
approach continues to be underpinned by the philosophy of community policing.
These have at their heart the principle that a partnership between the police
and communities is essential to effective service delivery.
Therefore this White Paper presents policy proposals intended
to establish a stable and effective department, capable of fulfilling its
mandate to the people of South Africa.
I have taken a conscious decision to ensure that the focus of
the White Paper is limited to those areas, which will have maximum impact in
improving the quality of service delivered to the public. This is motivated by
the need to dedicate resources and capacity to specific goals to ensure
However, this does not detract from the necessity of
developing policy interventions in important areas not directly addressed in
this White Paper. Therefore, urgent attention is required for policy
interventions in areas in which a lack of dedicated research has meant that not
enough is known to ensure adequate policy development. An example here is the
issue of rural safety and security. I will therefore direct my department to
prioritise the development of policy related to the provision of effective and
efficient law enforcement and crime prevention in the rural areas.
In keeping with the approach outlined in the National Crime
Prevention Strategy, the White Paper advocates a dual approach to safety and
security – effective and efficient law enforcement and the provision of crime
prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of crime.
The White Paper also advocates institutional reform, which
will create a clear separation between the political responsibility for policy
formulation on the one hand, and the managerial responsibility for the
implementation of policy on the other. This implies that government will take
firm control of the policy environment within which the police are required to
operate and, at the same time, provide greater managerial autonomy for the
police to execute their operational mandate. This will, in effect, ensure
greater accountability for improved service delivery.
The work of fighting crime is becoming more complex and,
therefore, more challenging. Criminals are becoming more organised and more
sophisticated, operating with little regard to national boundaries. Foreign
criminal groups are extending their operations as organised crime becomes
increasingly globalised and South Africa is not impervious to this development.
Therefore, the SAPS faces new challenges within the
increasingly sophisticated, technological and international crime arena. To
meet these demands the SAPS needs to upgrade the skills, competencies and
capacity of its members and its ability to gather and use crime intelligence.
Therefore implicit in the institutional reform outlined in the White Paper is
the development of our human resources in terms of their ability to meet the
complex challenges of constantly changing crime. This institutional reform will
also ensure that the Police Service becomes representative of the communities
I am aware of the enormous challenges faced by members of our
police service. Many police officers have become victims of violent crimes. It
must be acknowledged that police officers in South Africa have a much greater
chance of being victimised by violence than do citizens. However, some of us
have lost sight of the commitment and huge sacrifices being made by thousands
of policemen and women. We need to appreciate and encourage the efforts of
those police officers who often go beyond the call of duty to ensure the safety
of their fellow citizens. The Department must therefore ensure that adequate
support systems function effectively to assist police officers in this regard.
This must ensure that police officers are able to continue high levels of
service delivery to the public. We must also ensure that the dedication and
performance shown by professional police officers is developed and promoted
throughout the country.
Those, other than the police, who have been involved in crime
prevention have also been challenged in ensuring a wider recognition of the
fact that crime is more than a security issue, and in facilitating an
inter-departmental and multi-agency approach to crime prevention. The
consolidation of joint interdepartmental projects is now beginning to show
positive results, particularly with regard to the Integrated Justice System.
This approach to crime prevention has indicated that greater participation is
required from all spheres of government and this is developed in the White
While the public rightfully demand improvement in the quality
of service delivered by the police, members of the public also have a
responsibility to assist the police to deliver a better service. Here,
co-operation with the police is essential as is restoring the morality that
prevents participating in or encouraging unlawful activities".
Thus, the responsibility for further reducing crime rates to
acceptable levels is a heavy one. However, we have conducted an extensive
public consultation process throughout the country, believing that when shared,
the burden will be lighter. We have received an overwhelming response from a
diverse range of organisations and people. Each submission and input has
enriched the policy proposals in this White Paper, and has enhanced our
collective capacity to transform South Africa into a country in which we may
enjoy a safe and secure environment. The challenge now is to implement the
policy priorities outlined in this White Paper.
It is my vision that the provision of safety and security will
be improved for all the people of South Africa, and I believe that this White
Paper for Safety and Security provides the necessary policy interventions to
F S MUFAMADI
MINISTER OF SAFETY AND SECURITY
The vision of the Department of Safety and Security is that
the people of South Africa will enjoy greatly improved levels of safety.
Real reductions in crime will be attained through, firstly,
more effective and efficient policing as part of an effective justice system
and, secondly, through a greater ability to prevent crime.
DRAFTING THE WHITE PAPER
The Green Paper for Safety and Security issued in 1994, set
out a basic policy guide for the transformation of the Department of Safety and
Security. Since then a number of policy programmes have been initiated to bring
the activities of the Department into line with the Constitution and the needs
of policing a democracy.
To review these programmes and set the policy framework for
the next five years, the Minister of Safety and Security approved the
development of a White Paper in June 1997. A mandate committee, consisting of
the Minister, Deputy Minister, Secretary for Safety and Security and the
National Commissioner of the South African Police Service (SAPS) was
established to provide direction to the work of five ministerial committees set
up to provide content to a Draft White Paper.
The five committees, in which local and international experts
and senior members of the SAPS participated, were:
The committee to investigate safety and security issues in
The committee to investigate the safety and security
environment in South Africa;
The committee to investigate the principles of policing in
The committee to investigate appropriate guidelines to deal
with crime in South Africa; and,
The committee to investigate the organisational
transformation of the Department of Safety and Security.
The committee to investigate safety and security issues in
South Africa was referred to as the "core drafting team" and functioned to
co-ordinate and integrate the input from the other committees. This committee
referred the work of the other committees to the mandate committee and, in
turn, provided direction and input from the mandate committee to the White
Paper drafting process. The core drafting team also referred work for comment
to a critical readers group of experts and stakeholders.
Each committee submitted a final report which contained policy
recommendations based on its deliberations. The recommendations contained in
these reports were integrated and released for discussion among internal
stakeholders in November 1997. These stakeholders included the mandate
committee, SAPS management, the chairpersons of the National Council of
Provinces Committee on Security and Justice, the National Assembly Portfolio
Committee on Safety and Security, the MECs for Safety and Security, the
Secretariat for Safety and Security’s National Crime Prevention Strategy team,
and the Independent Complaints Directorate.
The Minister released the final Draft White Paper for public
consultation after Cabinet approval in May 1998. Extensive consultation was
undertaken with key stakeholders, role-players and civil society in the
following concurrent phases:
1. Provincial public hearings
Public hearings were held in each of the provinces to ensure
that the final policy recommendations of the White Paper reflected the views of
provincial stakeholders, role-players and the public.
2. National hearing
A national hearing was held over the 3rd to 5th August 1998 in
Parliament. A number of submissions were made, and provincial reports on the
submissions received from the public hearing process were presented. Joint
meetings of the National Portfolio Committee on Safety and Security and the
National Council of Provinces Committee on Security and Justice deliberated on
the issues raised through the public consultation process on the 18th and 21st
of August. These deliberations informed the final drafting of the White Paper.
3. Consultation with critical audiences
Extensive consultation with critical audiences was undertaken
as outlined below:
A Local Government Conference was held on 24 July 1998 at
which local government initiatives related to crime prevention were reviewed,
experiences on the safer cities projects shared and the interventions outlined
in the White Paper discussed.
Meetings were held with most of the political parties in
Cape Town to discuss relevant issues raised by the White Paper.
A workshop was held with the National Crime Prevention
Strategy partners on issues relevant to crime prevention as outlined in the
4. Internal consultation process
The South African Police Service circulated the Draft White
Paper extensively within their structures, and received numerous submissions. A
consolidated report on these submissions was compiled by the Divisional
Commissioner: National Management Services and sent to the Secretariat.
Valuable meetings were held with most of the national
The key trade-unions relevant to safety and security were
The final White Paper was presented to the Cabinet Committee
for Safety and Intelligence prior to the Cabinet meeting of 9 September 1998
when the White Paper was approved. Parliamentary debates on the White Paper
were held during September 1998.
A White Paper Conference was held on 11 September 1998 at
which a report back on the submissions and how they were incorporated was
A user friendly booklet is being developed which will explain
the policy shifts contained in the White Paper and what it means for the
stakeholders and role-players in safety and security in South Africa.
DIAGRAM 1: WHITE PAPER DRAFTING PROCESS
In the new democratic order, South Africans demand and deserve
accountable, effective and service oriented policing. The rights enshrined in
the Constitution, enacted in 1996, aim to ensure safety by protecting citizens
who come into contact with the law, and by obliging the state to provide
adequate security from those who perpetrate crime. In the past, the majority of
citizens were concerned with abuse by agencies of the state. With the advent of
democracy, the public now also demand the effective provision of safety. This
means that policing in a democracy requires professional law enforcement which
does not infringe upon human rights. It also requires a concerted effort by
government, in partnership with civil society, to prevent crime before it
The immediate challenge of the new government in 1994 was to
create a legitimate police service out of the eleven police forces constituted
under apartheid. Along with this challenge, political leaders had to ensure
that the police would support the new democracy, rather than oppose or
undermine it. Key to this process was ensuring that the police in future would
act in ways which won the trust of citizens who had once feared them.
The first democratic election in 1994, however, did not bring
a system of policing which was well placed to meet these objectives. Policing
in South Africa was traditionally highly centralised, para-military and
authoritarian. While these characteristics ensured that the police were
effective under apartheid in controlling the political opponents of the
government, it meant that they were poorly equipped for crime control and
prevention in the new democracy. Under apartheid rule the police force lacked
legitimacy and functioned as an instrument of control rather than as a police
service dedicated to ensuring the safety of all citizens. Thus, historically,
the police have had little interest in responding to crimes within "black"
areas; in 1994, 74% of the country's police stations were situated in white
suburbs or business districts.
Those police who were situated in "black" areas did not aim to
provide greater safety and security for their inhabitants. Police presence in
townships was used to anticipate and respond to collective challenges to
apartheid. Such interventions typically involved the targeting of police
resources for short periods of time in response to resistance to apartheid
rule. This mode of policing necessitated the mobilisation of force, requiring
skills and an organisation very different from that needed to police a
democratic order in which government seeks to ensure the safety of all
citizens. This inheritance has had a number of important consequences which
have weakened the ability of the Department to combat crime:
Authoritarian policing has few (if any) systems of
accountability and oversight and does not require public legitimacy in order to
be effective. Thus, with the advent of democracy in South Africa, systems of
police accountability and oversight were not present. Now mechanisms such as
the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD) – a complaints body tasked with
investigating abuses within the SAPS, situated outside of the police but
reporting directly to the Minister – provide a means of limiting the occurrence
of human rights abuses. Moreover, accountability and civilian oversight as set
out in the Green Paper for Safety and Security (1994) continue to be key
components of the policy agenda. While much progress has been made, additional
interventions are still required to ensure that South Africa follows
international best practice in the area of civilian oversight and
accountability. Elected local government – while not seeking to intervene in
police operational matters – should have a greater input in the aims and
objectives of policing to ensure that the needs of citizens in different
localities are met. At national level, greater consideration should be given to
ensuring that policy and operational practice are aligned in ways which ensure
more effective service delivery to the public.
The South African Police Service has not had a history of
criminal detection characteristic of the police in other democratic societies.
The collection, collation and presentation of evidence to secure the
prosecution of criminals is weakly developed in many areas. This is reflected
by, among other indicators, the training levels and experience of the detective
component of the SAPS. In 1994, only about 26% of detectives had been on a
formal investigation training course while only 13% of detectives had over six
years experience. In any event, those detective skills present in the police
before 1994 were concentrated largely in white areas. The problems of criminal
detection are mirrored in the area of crime intelligence. Intelligence
gathering structures were orientated towards the political opponents of the
apartheid state. Consequently, crime intelligence, particularly as it pertains
to increasingly sophisticated forms of organised crime, requires immediate
A concentration on policing for purposes of political
control has meant that prior to 1994 – and in contrast with developments in
other societies – the understanding and practice of crime prevention is poorly
developed in South Africa. In relation to the police this means, in particular,
that there has been little tradition of visible and community orientated
policing on which to build. Apart from such interventions, however,
international experience suggests that the police are not always well placed to
prevent all types of crime. Targeted social crime prevention programmes – of
which the police may only be one of a range of participants – that aim to
undercut the causes of particular types of crime in defined localities have
been shown to be both successful and cost effective in reducing crime. Such
programmes require careful monitoring and measurement and must involve key
role-players at local level in order to be effective.
Continuing the process of transformation of the Department of
Safety and Security requires a concentration on these and related areas. The
White Paper is central to this process. It is the overarching policy framework
of government in relation to safety and security for the period 1999 to 2004.
The White Paper draws conclusions for the future policy orientation of the
Department of Safety and Security. It aims to guide the policy direction of the
Department over the next five years to ensure reductions in crime. It points to
areas where other government departments and authorities – at national,
provincial and local level – should be involved in ensuring a safer society for
all citizens. In doing so, it seeks to create a coherent policy framework for
effective and accountable policing. In addition, by providing appropriate
principles and an appropriate framework for crime prevention, the White Paper
aims to impact upon the root causes of crime. It also recommends reform to the
Department of Safety and Security’s institutional arrangements to ensure
effective service delivery.
In this regard, the principles outlined in the Green Paper
continue to inform the broad policy thrusts of this White Paper – particularly,
the principle of community participation as embodied in the philosophy of
community policing, and the principles of democratic control and accountability
as envisaged in the Constitution. This focus is directly in line with
international trends in policing which demonstrate that the participation of
communities and community policing form the bedrock of effective law
The objectives of the White Paper are to outline:
Strategic priorities to deal with crime.
Roles and responsibilities of various role-players in the
safety and security sphere.
The role of the Department of Safety and Security within the
SAFETY AND SECURITY IN DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA
Fundamental to the development of appropriate policing
services in South Africa has been a shift from an inheritance of authoritarian
law and order responses, to a broader concept of safety and security for all
citizens. This was the vision spelt out both in the Green Paper and in the
National Crime Prevention Strategy released in May 1996. The strategy motivated
for a new paradigm for safety and security: a change in emphasis from an
exclusive focus on crime control to include crime prevention.
Given its scope and multi-agency approach, the NCPS is the
most important current initiative aimed at achieving sustainable safety in
South Africa. The Department of Safety and Security has been entrusted with
ensuring the implementation of the NCPS. This, therefore, ensures that the
vision of the NCPS continues to frame the guiding principles of departmental
In line with these principles, the White Paper views the
concept of safety and security in terms of two broad and inter-locking
components: that of policing or law enforcement, and that of crime prevention,
and particularly social crime prevention, which is aimed at undercutting the
causes of crime. This twin approach to fighting crime is critical: law
enforcement and crime prevention are not mutually exclusive but reinforce each
On the one hand, law enforcement initiatives will be weakened
if conditions in which they are carried out continue to spawn high levels of
criminality, which the police are only able to react to and not pre-empt. On
the other hand, international experience has shown that sophisticated crime
prevention strategies have only a limited effect when the state institutions of
policing and criminal justice are poorly developed, with little deterrent
What is required are social crime prevention programmes which
target the causes of particular types of crime at national, provincial and
local level. More generally, such an approach also recognises the impact of
broader government economic, development and social policies for crime
prevention. Thus, the effective delivery of basic services such as housing,
education and health as well as job creation, have in themselves, a critical
role to play in ensuring living environments less conducive to crime. This
suggests that greater lobbying, planning and co-ordination is required at
national, provincial and local level, specifically on the question of crime
prevention and its links to a wider array of other government functions.
These requirements have profound implications for how the
Department of Safety and Security and other government departments reorient
themselves, conduct their business and reallocate their resources. It suggests
a renewed concentration on law enforcement within the police service itself. It
also requires the involvement of a wider number of new role-players in safety
Another important element of safety and security in democratic
South Africa is the necessity to enhance the spirit of voluntarism in our
country. There are many important partners in the fight against crime. These
include, among others, organisations of civil society, particularly business
and community organisations, citizens who volunteer for service as Police
Reservists as well as the private security industry which performs a useful
role. The role of such players is, in principle, one of partnership with the
State. For this reason, greater attention will be paid to their role in the
safety and security environment in future policy processes.
In particular, it is envisaged that the role of the private
security industry, including in-house private security, will be developed
through legislation as provided for in the Security Officers Act. Given the
nature and scope of the private security industry, this legislation should be
preceded by an all inclusive process of consultation and contribution by all
Important also, is the need to strengthen partnerships and
co-operation with those key departments involved in crime prevention and those
Departments which have valuable skills and resources to offer, such as the
South African National Defence Force.
Given the scope of these issues, the structure of the White
Paper is as follows:
Section I provides an overview of the extent and nature
of crime in the country, and the implications for future policy. Drawing on
this analysis, Section II outlines key areas of intervention in relation to law
enforcement. Section III examines the challenges of implementing crime
prevention. Sections IV and V provide guidelines for institutional reform at
national, provincial and local level. Finally, Section VI outlines the cost
implications of the White Paper.
SECTION I CONFRONTING CRIME IN DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA
Crime and policing in the new democracy
Government anti-crime initiatives
Developing new policy
Strategic areas for intervention
Reducing crime is one of the leading challenges of South
Africa's democratic government. Some success has been achieved in this regard
with most categories of recorded crime stabilising from 1996. Appropriate law
enforcement and social crime prevention interventions are urgently required to
reduce crime from current levels.
Recorded crime statistics, while they do not always reflect
the true extent of crime in any society, are still useful in presenting broad
crime trends. In turn, victim surveys – an independent means of verifying
police statistics through questioning a representative sample of the population
– also provide useful insights into the extent of crime. In South Africa,
recent victim surveys suggest that police statistics may be more accurate than
has been generally assumed. Much effort is being directed within the Department
to ensure that the quality and reliability of crime statistics is further
enhanced. A Committee of Inquiry into the collection, processing and
interpretation of crime statistics has just completed its work and several of
its recommendations are being implemented. However, data key to ensuring
effective crime prevention on issues such as domestic violence, the
relationship between alcohol and offending, and the role of youth in crime, is
currently not available.
CRIME AND SAFETY AND SECURITY IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA
SAPS statistics suggest that crime in the country increased
from 1985. This began to change in 1996 when most categories of crime showed a
stabilisation. Despite this trend, current levels of crime remain high and
continue to breed insecurity in the country. Crime has severe implications
through the costs of victimisation which undermine economic and social
development. Also, fear of crime often changes lifestyles, negatively affecting
the quality of living.
The causes of crime were analysed in some detail in the NCPS.
Among others, the NCPS identified these as being: gender inequality;
proliferation of arms; social-psychological factors; vigilantism; inadequate
support to victims of crime; youth marginalisation; economic underdevelopment
and inequality; poverty and unemployment; institutionalised violence in the
society; and, the encroachment of international criminal groups. Given that
these have already been covered in the NCPS, which frames the content of the
White Paper, this analysis will not be repeated here.
It should be noted, however, that high levels of crime often
accompany transitions to democracy. This is not to say that crime is
necessarily a feature of democracy. Instead, dramatic changes in societies
which move from authoritarian rule to democratic governance often weaken state
and social controls, generating increased levels of crime. In addition, as
experience from other societies in transition suggest, this enhances
opportunities for more sophisticated and organised criminal operations which
must be countered by equally sophisticated government responses. This implies
improving technological systems and human resource capabilities.
Organised criminal activity, while present before 1994, was
not recognised as a concern. Countering organised crime has now become a key
goal of government. Police statistics suggest a large number of organised crime
syndicates operate in the country. These groups, many of whom have regional and
international links, engage in a number of illegal activities including the
trafficking of drugs and arms, vehicle theft and armed robbery. Government is
therefore required to respond to the regional and international character of
crime by strengthening regional and international co-operation.
Despite these challenges, international evidence suggests that
states in transition to democracy are seldom immediately able to counter crime.
On the one hand, authoritarian governance is usually accompanied by policing
methods inappropriate for crime prevention in a democratic environment. On the
other hand, the new state is often faced with the dilemma that it is required
to govern the society with the same instruments which were used to enforce
As has been outlined earlier, this was the case in South
Africa. The advent of democracy in 1994 heralded dramatic legislative and
policy changes in the safety and security environment. Primary among these was
the enactment of the Constitution which provides a framework for the structure,
political control, accountability and oversight of the national police service.
Key interventions were the establishment of the National and
Provincial Secretariats, charged with oversight and monitoring of the police
service, and the creation of the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD)
tasked with the investigation of police misconduct, including deaths resulting
from police action and deaths in police custody. Given that the ICD began its
operations in April 1997, it is too early to rigorously assess its functioning.
However, there can be no doubt that the effective functioning of the ICD will
deter the abuse of police powers.
Reducing crime however entails more than policing, an
effective system of criminal justice and appropriate systems of oversight. Also
required are new forms of governance and social control. In South Africa this
process is well underway with the establishment of elected government at all
three levels. These developments have all contributed to the stabilisation of
In addition, it should be noted that broader socio-economic
factors such as rapid urbanisation, high levels of unemployment and inequality
between communities all influence safety and security. To counter this,
economic growth and social development must ensure that opportunities for some
categories of crime are limited. Crime control and prevention strategies must
therefore be underpinned by complementary social and economic policies.
These and other interventions are required to ensure sustained
reductions in crime levels in the medium and long term. Since 1994, however,
the pressures of attempting to meet both the Constitutional criteria for police
restructuring, as well as the challenges of policing in a democratic
environment, have dominated the policy environment.
THE CHANGING POLICY ENVIRONMENT
The transformation process in the police along with the
pressures of crime, have resulted in a multiplicity of strategies and plans
within the Department of Safety and Security (see Appendix 1). An analysis of
these suggests that progress has been attained in many areas and that the
transformation of the Department to achieve greater effectiveness is underway.
The transformation agenda set by the democratic government since 1994 continues
to present important challenges to the Department of Safety and Security. The
most important of these relate to the development of a professional and
representative public service.
Particularly relevant here are the White Paper on the
Transformation of the Public Service (Batho Pele), the White Paper on
Affirmative Action and legislative interventions related to employment equity
issues. The Batho Pele White Paper sets out a number of priorities, amongst
which, the improvement of service delivery is outlined as the key to
transformation. This is because the public service will be judged, above all,
on whether it can meet the basic needs of all South African citizens. This
White Paper lays down the following eight principles for the transformation of
public service delivery:
The White Paper on Affirmative Action outlines the additional
corrective steps which must be taken in order to ensure that those who have
been historically disadvantaged by unfair discrimination are able to derive
full benefit from an equitable employment environment. Thus, affirmative action
programmes must contain the following mandatory requirements:
The policies above demonstrate that improving service delivery
is directly related to the creation of a representative, democratic and
accountable Department of Safety and Security.
Furthermore a focus is needed on developing an integrated
human resource development strategy concentrating on, among other areas,
training, mechanisms to improve the recruitment of appropriate personnel and a
performance-based incentive system. Formulating such a strategy will form an
immediate priority for the Department.
It is clear that the Department of Safety and Security needs
to strengthen its efforts in transformation. However, some success has already
been achieved in important areas. In particular, the task of amalgamating
separate police forces and reorganising the service into national and
provincial structures is progressing well. A fundamental component of the
amalgamation process is the demilitarisation and civilianisation of the new
A large number of strategies related to the above are being
pursued within the Department of Safety and Security. However, safety and
security policy more generally is determined through the overriding framework
and programmes of the NCPS.
The NCPS is intended as a comprehensive multi-agency approach
to crime prevention. It aims to influence the operations of the Departments of
Safety and Security, Justice, Correctional Services, Welfare, Defence,
Intelligence, Health and Education. Given that the justice system is a single
enterprise, the NCPS has established new co-ordination structures including
joint decision making by Directors-General and Ministers of NCPS departments.
The NCPS, as it has evolved, has the following components:
Co-ordination and integration of criminal justice functions.
This includes funding and joint decision making in criminal justice
departments. The flagship initiative here is the Integrated Justice System
project which will fundamentally affect the SAPS and other agencies, changing
the way that information pertaining to criminal cases is managed and processed.
Co-ordination and leadership to address high priority crime
areas involving several departments and other actors. Because the co-ordination
of anti-crime efforts is weak, NCPS structures have increasingly taken on this
role. Several successes are being achieved, notably in border control and
combating vehicle theft.
Research, advocacy and facilitation of crime prevention programmes. This area is in its embryonic stage, due primarily to a lack of
dedicated capacity and resources.
Much has been learnt since 1994 about the development of such
policy approaches. In particular, experience suggests that while co-ordination
between departments of the justice system is important, improvements here will
not in themselves solve internal problems of capacity. The effectiveness of the
justice system relies not only on co-ordination, but also on the success of
individual departments in performing their line function responsibilities.
TOWARDS EFFECTIVE LAW ENFORCEMENT
The formulation of policy over the last four years has
resulted in a sophisticated and diverse set of objectives. This has reflected
the complexity of both the crime prevention exercise and the demands of
achieving effective policing in the context of political transition.
Building a legitimate and effective law enforcement
organisation is an essential part of this process. In particular, this requires
an investment in, and focus on, the institutions which are essential to show
that the state can, and will, act against criminals. Nowhere is this more
clearly required than in the area of police investigations.
While the new constitutional order makes the job of the police
more complex, by providing checks on their power and protecting the rights of
citizens, it does not prevent police from fighting crime. Instead, police
investigation practices – as in other democracies – require greater
sophistication and training. In South Africa this shift has been slow and is
reflected in a comparatively small number of cases which are successfully
While the police are only one component in securing a
conviction, police investigators have a key role to play. Unless investigations
are properly conducted and the work of prosecutors adequately supported,
declining convictions will continue.
The consequences of inadequate criminal investigations should
not be underestimated if criminal justice agencies are to show the public that
the state can act against crime. In the case of sophisticated and, in
particular, organised crime, there is little choice but to improve the
investigative capacity of the police. This also requires strengthening the link
between police investigators and prosecutors to ensure the conviction of
offenders. This is highlighted in Section IV.
Importantly also in the context of a rights based society, is
how best to meet the needs of citizens and in particular victims, in the event
of serious crimes. This requires an increase in the standards of professional
service provided by the SAPS.
In addition, improving the standard of police service delivery
requires targeting corruption within the Police Service and the justice system.
Fundamental to dealing with corruption is creating and sustaining effective
management systems that aim to strengthen administrative controls and to
Given the new focus on law enforcement in a democracy, a key
policy challenge is now to reduce crime in a way that does not divide South
Africa further along lines of race and privilege. While a basic standard of
enforcement – well above the present level – is required, this must be balanced
in the long term by measures that reduce the number of people entering the
justice system in the first place. This does imply a trade-off between
resources for law enforcement and social crime prevention.
TOWARDS EFFECTIVE SOCIAL CRIME PREVENTION
To rely on law enforcement alone will incur huge costs
associated with investigation, prosecution and imprisonment. Therefore, without
an adequate focus on crime prevention, the justice system will remain
overburdened. International experience suggests that it is more cost effective
in the medium to long term to invest in projects which prevent crime, than in
simply spending more on the institutions of policing, courts and corrections.
These reactive responses to crime, in addition to proving more expensive in the
longer term, also do little to improve the quality of life of the country's
The importance of such preventive interventions is emphasised
by two factors. First, not all crime types can necessarily be solved by
policing. In particular, crime in poor communities can often be traced to
socio-economic circumstances which cannot be addressed by the police acting
Secondly, as is emphasised in the NCPS, the causes of crime
need to be disaggregated for the purposes of preventive interventions.
Particular types of crime have different causes; these in turn may vary from
locality to locality and thus require specific solutions. It is also necessary
to focus on strategies - although relatively little data is available in this
area - to counter "crimes of greed"; such as "white-collar"; and commercial
Thus social crime prevention is aimed at reducing the social,
economic and environmental factors conducive to particular types of crime.
Targeted crime prevention strategies must focus on the individual offender or
victim and the environment in which they live.
For example, research in the Northern Cape which is supported
by police docket analysis suggests that high alcohol consumption (a result of
historic distribution policies in wine growing areas) plays a key contributing
role in some types of crime, particularly, assault, domestic violence, rape and
murder. Thus, a multi-faceted strategy is required to effectively undercut
these crimes. This may require new alcohol control and distribution policies,
programmes that will consider environmental factors (the position of shebeens
in relation to schools), victim support as well as policing (regular patrols of
high crime areas and enforcing of alcohol related laws). It is clear that
policing alone will do little to resolve many of the Northern Cape’s crime
problems. In fact, the Northern Cape has the highest police/citizen ratio in
the country. This example of the potential effectiveness of social crime
prevention is not isolated to the Northern Cape.
Such an example suggests that successful crime prevention is
critical to the poor, both because they are least able to cope with the
consequences of crime and because the socio-economic conditions at the root of
many crimes are often found in underprivileged areas. The government will,
therefore, specifically build the needs of the poor into any evaluative
framework for crime prevention programmes.
STRATEGIC FOCUS AREAS
This section highlights the need for critical policy choices
to be made. It is important to again stress that these do not ignore the
current interventions dealing with police transformation, including issues of
affirmative action and community policing. Such ongoing initiatives underpin
the policy proposals of the White Paper. In order to achieve a safer and more
secure society, intervention is now required in two key areas:
Social crime prevention
These policy priorities are addressed in Section II and III
All activities which reduce, deter or prevent the occurrence
of specific crimes firstly, by altering the environment in which they occur,
secondly by changing the conditions which are thought to cause them, and
thirdly by providing a strong deterrent in the form of an effective Justice
DIAGRAM 2: CRIME PREVENTION FRAMEWORK FOR WHITE PAPER
|CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH EFFECTIVE CRIMINAL JUSTICE
||SOCIAL CRIME PREVENTION
|Reduces the opportunity for crime by making it more difficult
|to commit crimes, more risky or less rewarding. Effective law enforcement
creates a strong deterrent to crime.
||Reduces the socio-economic and environmental factors that influence people to
commit crimes and become persistent offenders.
HOW IS IT ACHIEVED?
- Justice system acts as a deterrent
- Law enforcement
- Rehabilitation and reintegration
- Active visible policing
- Successful investigations
- Victim empowerment
HOW IS IT ACHIEVED?
- Designing out crime
- Promoting social cohesion
- Supporting youth and families and groups at risk
- Breaking cycles of violence
- Promoting individual responsibility
- Socio-economic interventions to undercut causes of crime
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE
- All levels of Government
- All Government departments,
particularly those engaged in the National Crime Prevention Strategy
- South African Police Service
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE:
- All levels of Government
- Government departments such as Housing, Education, Welfare, Health
- National Crime Prevention Strategy
- Organisations of civil society
- Citizens and residents of South Africa.
POLICY PRIORITY: LAW ENFORCEMENT IN A DEMOCRACY
The previous section motivated the need for law enforcement to
meet the safety and security requirements of democratic South Africa. If
policing is to improve safety and security, it will do so through arresting and
bringing suspects to court with good evidence. If effective, this will act as a
deterrent to potential offenders and counter the perception of impunity and
lack of respect for the law which exists in South Africa.
To achieve this, the following is required:
1. Improving the investigative capacity of the SAPS.
2. Implementing targeted visible policing.
3. Meeting the needs of victims through adequate service
1. IMPROVING CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS
Goal: To increase the effectiveness and efficiency of criminal
One of the primary focus areas for policing in the course of
the next five years will be on improving the quality of criminal
investigations. Improving the capacity of the SAPS to do this means allocating
sufficient resources to detection and developing the skills and techniques of
the relevant SAPS personnel. In particular, the needs of the police with regard
to the management of investigations and information as well as technical
support must be met. In addition, it is acknowledged that adequate service
delivery to victims of crime is an essential component of successful
investigations (see Focus Area 3 below).
It should be noted, however, that the responsibility for
securing a conviction once a suspect has been brought to court, rests both with
the police (who collect the evidence) and with the prosecution (who must argue
the case). Thus, effective deterrence depends on support from criminal justice
agencies outside of the SAPS. This requires improved co-operation between the
Departments of Safety and Security, Justice, Correctional Services as well as
the intelligence community. This in turn emphasises the importance of the
Integrated Justice System project currently being implemented through the NCPS.
The Integrated Justice System project, a flagship project of the NCPS, aims to
enhance the effectiveness of the justice system through greater co-ordination
and, particularly, improving the flow of information across the relevant
It also points to the Department’s commitment to ensuring a
policing and justice system that is technologically advanced.
Specific interventions to improve investigations
Increase numbers: International comparisons of the ratio
between the number of detectives and the total number of cases under
investigation, suggest that the detective components of the SAPS are
understaffed. Therefore, the number of personnel involved in investigations
should be increased to improve the ability of the police service to deal
efficiently and effectively with the case load.
Training: Detective training currently lacks practical
application and there is little structured mentoring for detectives once
appointed. The establishment of the SAPS Detective Academy will go some way in
addressing these problems, specifically with regard to the skilling of
specialised investigation units. However, the appointment of large numbers of
new investigators will require a more extensive and practical training
Detective management: The management of the detective function
must be enhanced to improve deployment and performance. The roles and authority
of management must be clarified. Performance indicators for detectives need to
be set and monitored.
Crime intelligence: The effective use of crime intelligence is
fundamental to law enforcement. While the crime intelligence functions of the
SAPS are separate from those of detection, close co-operation and co-ordination
is required. The collection, analysis and management of crime intelligence must
be improved. These functions are crucial, particularly to proactive
investigations which focus on, among other things, organised crime. Regarding
the collection of crime intelligence, the following should be noted:
The value of crime intelligence to policing is directly
related to the extent to which it is useful for the prevention and
investigation of crime.
The gathering and collection of crime intelligence must take
place within the confines of the law.
The informer system remains an integral component of the
investigation function. However it must be continuously appraised for quality,
reliability, extensiveness and integrity. It is vital that the system of crime
intelligence is effectively developed across all South African communities.
Co-operation with intelligence agencies is essential in this regard.
Crime intelligence analysts should be appointed to the SAPS
to assist in improving the quality of intelligence used by detectives.
To be effective, intelligence should be accessible – with
due regard to issues of security – to relevant users within the police service.
The value of crime intelligence is that it performs a critical
pro-active function. Thus, the effective application of intelligence requires
co-operation between the SAPS, the National Intelligence Agency, the South
African Secret Service and the intelligence functions of the Department of
Defence. Further, enhanced international co-operation is required particularly
for dealing with organised crime. Effective co-operation is also required with
the Independent Complaints Directorate in relation to internal investigations.
Specialised investigation units: Special investigative
techniques are required for dealing with a range of complex crimes. Specialised
units should continue to be established where a high degree of skill,
particular techniques, experience or knowledge are required. However, clear
criteria for the establishment of specialised units must be formulated.
Such units should only be constituted where the crime problem
requiring attention is sufficiently serious, but not such that it would be more
cost effective for all members of the SAPS to be skilled in its resolution. The
degree or seriousness of any crime trend or type should be determined by:
its effects on socio-economic development;
the degree of public concern;
the frequency of its occurrence; and
its geographic location.
Sharing the burden: The appropriateness of shifting some
investigations to other role-players and spheres of government will be examined
as a matter of urgency in order to allow experienced detectives to focus on
serious crimes. An example here would be the shifting of responsibility for the
investigation of road traffic accidents and offences to local government where
local government has the required capacity. Clearly, however this requires a
detailed assessment of the appropriateness of shifting such responsibilities,
an analysis of the capacity to assume such functions and an understanding of
the legal ramifications of doing so.
2. VISIBLE POLICING
Goal: To target visible policing to address specific crimes
and the fear of crime
Comparative evidence suggests that where visible policing
programmes are vigorously implemented and offenders arrested, crime and the
fear of crime decrease.
For visible policing to be effective, police officers on the
beat need to assertively perform their policing functions. This entails
communicating with members of the public and engaging in street level law
enforcement. Because effective visible policing entails vigorous law
enforcement, it relies on the support of the local community. It therefore must
be conducted in terms of the relevant principles of the Batho Pele White Paper
(see Section I). Police training would also need to incorporate these elements.
Accurate crime information regarding the locality and nature
of crime in a particular area is central to effective visible policing. To
ensure that these interventions reduce crime, the establishment of an overt
crime analysis and information capacity must urgently receive attention at
Given the renewed focus on crime investigation and the
consequent increase in personnel involved in investigations, it is essential
that the capacity to implement visible policing be augmented through
partnerships with local government.
Implementing effective visible policing
Visible policing can be conducted in various ways to achieve
Preventive patrol: This consists of a constant uniformed
police presence in an area targeted on the basis of analysis of crime patterns.
Officers on patrol activities can also respond to incidents reported by the
public – the immediacy of the response being determined by the seriousness of
the incident. This type of patrol has been found to be most effective in major
urban areas. Municipal police services have an important role to play in this
regard (see Section V).
Directed patrol: This involves the assignment of patrol
officers to provide a visible presence in a specific location for a limited
period and for a particular purpose. Directed patrol relies on crime analysis
to provide timely information on crime patterns in any area.
Sector policing: This entails the division of areas into
smaller managerial sectors and the assignment of police officers to these areas
on a full time basis. These police officers regularly patrol their own sector
and are able to identify problems and seek appropriate solutions. Sector
policing encourages constant contact with members of local communities.
Directed patrol and sector policing should be:
Proactively, vigorously, and fairly conducted.
Based on clear instructions from police commanders to patrol
Planned on the basis of crime analysis.
Focused on specific problems within any area.
Implemented on the basis of specific time frames.
Developed in collaboration with municipal police services
and other relevant role-players.
High density policing: This entails the saturation of areas
experiencing high levels of crime with patrolling police officers. Policing of
this nature is often required to stabilise high crime areas so that normal
policing can resume. Such interventions go beyond merely saturating any area
with police. They entail increasing the number of police officers for a
particular purpose, which includes making arrests.
In South Africa, high density policing is largely performed by
the public order units of the SAPS. These units are tasked with the primary
function of managing incidents of public collective action. Given the shortage
of policing resources and the relatively well organised and disciplined nature
of the public order units, these constitute an important resource, which should
be used strategically, drawing on the accurate and timely provision of
3. PROVIDING ADEQUATE SERVICE TO VICTIMS
Goal: Improving the quality of service delivery to victims of
Victimisation constitutes a violation of human rights.
Empowerment of victims of crime therefore restores human rights and is an
important element of police service delivery.
International experience has shown that effective management
of both direct and indirect victims and witnesses of crime is a vital part of
successful police investigations. This is, in itself, integral to community
policing which seeks to build relationships between the police and local
Victims and witnesses play an important role in assisting the
police in the collection of evidence and through participating in the process
of prosecution. This means that improved victim support and empowerment can
assist investigations and serve as a means of altering public perceptions of
police effectiveness. Thus, the link between victim support and successful
investigations is critical to improving service delivery and therefore to
enhancing public confidence in the police.
It should be recognised that the police themselves are
disproportionately victims of violent acts during the course of performing
their duties. Specific responses to support these officers and their families
will continue to be developed.
The Department subscribes to internationally accepted victims’
rights, which include the following:
The right to be treated with respect and dignity;
The right to offer information;
The right to receive information;
The right to legal advice; and,
The right to protection.
These principles imply the following for police service
The questioning of victims and other witnesses throughout
the investigation should be carried out with respect for the dignity of the
Where required, priority should be given to the protection
of victims and witnesses during investigations.
Appropriate conditions constraining defendants or offenders
from contacting a victim or witness should be included in the provisions of
bail, non-custodial sentences and parole. Victims should always be informed of
the details of these conditions and should have clear information on the action
to be taken if they are breached.
Consistent report back to victims on the progress of all
investigations and prosecutions must be built into the management of cases.
This should be a key performance indicator of the quality of police
Where relevant, procedures should be developed to ensure
that offenders are not able to identify witnesses.
Specific guidelines for use at station level should be
developed to ensure that in cases in which women have been victims of sexual
offences, rape or domestic violence, they are treated with extra dignity,
compassion and care.
Specific guidelines for use at station level should be
developed to ensure that juvenile and child victims receive special protection
and care. This also applies to other vulnerable groups and the disabled.
At local level, the police should support and participate in
networks with health services, social workers, non-government and
community-based organisations which provide victims with assistance, support
Specific interventions in the areas listed above must take
cognisance of the existing work of the NCPS Victim Empowerment Programme driven
by the Department of Welfare.
POLICY PRIORITY: ENSURING EFFECTIVE CRIME PREVENTION
Initiating, co-ordinating and evaluating social crime
prevention at national, provincial and local level
Co-ordination for improving the integrated justice system
As indicated in the previous section, effective law
enforcement by the police and the criminal justice system play a vital role in
preventing and deterring crime. However, law enforcement alone cannot reduce
the social and economic factors which contribute to crime. These require a
different set of preventative interventions. Crime prevention and,
particularly, social crime prevention, not only targets the causes of crime,
but in the longer term, does so in the most cost-effective way. It addresses
those factors that contribute to the occurrence of crime, and requires a focus
on three broad and overlapping target groups or areas:
Offender based strategies focus on those known to be
criminals, or thought to be at risk of offending, and aim to ensure positive behavioural change.
Victim based strategies focus on support for those who have
become victims of crime by providing information aimed at minimising the
likelihood of victimisation.
Environment based strategies aim at altering the social,
economic and other related factors which contribute to the occurrence of crime.
Crime prevention strategies therefore focus on those groups
most at risk of either offending or becoming victims of crime, for example,
poor communities, the youth, women and children and the disabled. Comparative
international experience, recently documented in the Crime Prevention Digest
(International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1997) and a report to the
United States Congress entitled Preventing Crime: What works, what doesn't,
what's promising (Sherman et al., 1997), indicates that programmes focussed on
the youth, families and communities as well as programmes focussed on reducing
the opportunities for crime, have reduced delinquency, violence and insecurity
in both the short and long-term.
The resources available to all levels of government are
limited. Crime prevention must therefore emphasise more effective and efficient
use of existing resources. Social crime strategies therefore need to optimise
current initiatives and facilitate multi-agency networks through which
experience, resources and functions can be shared.
Effective crime prevention strategies would therefore need to
involve partnerships between government bodies and structures of civil society
to address certain factors contributing to crime. Internationally, it has been
demonstrated that the criteria for successful crime prevention through targeted
Political commitment to build safer communities through
Involvement of social services such as housing, health,
recreation and sport, urban planning and local government, and the justice
Adequate community crime prevention planning.
National support for local action.
AREAS FOR INTERVENTION
The target groups outlined above can be reached through social
crime prevention strategies which fall into one or more of the following broad
Developmental crime prevention: Such interventions address
factors contributing to delinquency and violent offending, which may relate to
socio-economic deprivation, marginalisation, fragmented communities and
disrupted families be they in urban or rural areas. Projects include early
learning programmes, structured parenting guidance and support programmes for
youth at risk, which aim at training and enhancing prospects for employment.
Projects in this arena require the commitment and assistance of many government
departments, some of whom are already undertaking such work.
Situational crime prevention: These strategies diminish
opportunities for crime by modifying the situations in which offending occurs.
This encompasses crime prevention through environmental design, focusing on
making the built environment less conducive to crime. Projects here include,
for example, improving mechanisms for surveillance through better lighting and
layout of urban centres, or more generally, designing systems to restrict the
availability and use of firearms or alcohol. Also included here are programmes
aimed at dealing with the economic rationale for certain crime.
Community crime prevention: These interventions involve
communities taking responsibility for crime prevention in their own neighbourhoods. Such interventions involve localised programs which mobilise a
range of interest groups to address crime prevention on a town or city basis.
Projects could include effective rehabilitation through effective community
corrections aimed at reducing repeat offending.
Continuous improvements to the integrated justice system: An
effective justice system acts as a deterrent and improves support to victims
and the management of offenders. It is therefore critical that the justice
system operates as a single enterprise through which information and activities
crucial to victim support, offender management and crime prevention are shared
to enhance the effectiveness of the justice system.
Implementing crime prevention in these ways requires targeting
specific crime problems through multifaceted strategies that aim to combat and
prevent a single offence or category of offences. Social crime prevention
therefore requires a multi-departmental or multi-sectoral approach. Also, such
interventions should be located at all levels of government and should include
relevant organisations of civil society.
The key to implementing crime prevention lies at the
provincial and local level (see below). However, national leadership,
co-ordination and funds are required to provide incentives and guidelines for
ensuring effective provincial and local implementation. This includes building
the capacity to manage crime prevention projects in the short to medium term.
The NCPS provided a national vision and framework for preventing crime. What is
now required is to institutionalise the management and planning at national
level to ensure effective implementation at all tiers of government and
effective learning and information exchange.
In line with this, a National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre
(NCPSC) situated within the Department of Safety and Security at national
level, is required. This Centre will function to initiate, co-ordinate and
facilitate crime prevention programmes. This includes the initiation of high
impact nationally driven projects. In addition, the office will be responsible
for ensuring continuous improvement of the justice system.
In order to give effect to this mandate, crime prevention
legislation needs to be developed to determine roles and responsibilities
across departments and sectors and to provide for incentives for delivery.
NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGY CENTRE
Goal: To establish a Centre responsible for both social crime
prevention and facilitating improvements to the criminal justice system
The functions of the Centre will be twofold:
Social crime prevention, including developing systems to
reduce the opportunities and economic rationale for certain crimes such as
motor vehicle theft and corruption.
Achieving an integrated justice system.
This Centre will therefore continue the mandated work of the
Department of Safety and Security in the NCPS.
Functions of the National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre
Achieving effective social crime prevention and an integrated
justice system requires:
Establishing a national vision and the identification
of priorities. This will involve a strong research, monitoring and information
Mobilising other government departments such as Justice,
Correctional Services, Welfare, Education, Public Service and Administration
and Transport who have a role to play in crime prevention initiatives.
Assisting provincial and local government in preventing
crime by providing research, technical guidance, training and the sharing of
Working in partnership with the provinces, local government
and civil society to develop crime prevention programmes.
Providing seed funding for targeted social crime prevention programmes.
Continuous improvements to the criminal justice system to
effectively assist in, among other areas, case, offender, victim and workload
Assist in co-ordinating and managing the prevention of
certain priority crimes as identified in the annual planning process.
The efficacy of the National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre
strategic approach will be rigorously evaluated in the next three to five
TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF CRIME PREVENTION
Key to successful crime prevention, it has been argued, are
not only national leadership and co-operation between national departments on
the issue, but also ensuring that crime prevention becomes an entrenched
principle at other spheres of government.
Provincial government, in particular, has a key role to play
in this process by initiating and co-ordinating social crime prevention
initiatives within provinces. This role involves co-ordination of a range of
provincial functions and role-players -; health, education, welfare, transport
and local government -; to achieve more effective crime prevention. Programmes
at provincial level should focus on assisting local government and on those
communities often most at risk (but least likely to receive crime prevention
support), such as the poor in rural and peri-urban areas. Specific policy
related to this will be urgently developed.
Provincial governments have already accepted their role in
social crime prevention. The NCPS summits held during 1996 and 1997 emerged
with innovative project plans in this regard. However, there is still some way
to go in activating provincial crime prevention initiatives. This is partly
because of the absence of an effective mechanism for implementation and
co-ordination in most provinces, as well as a shortage of funding. The specific
roles and responsibilities of provincial governments in this regard are
outlined in Section V.
Local government, the level of government which is closest to
the citizenry, is uniquely placed to actively participate in social crime
prevention initiatives and to redirect the provision of services to facilitate
crime prevention. Many issues of day-to-day governance and crime prevention are
inherent to the functions of local government. The role and functions of local
government in relation to crime prevention are outlined in more detail in
In addition to the above, civil society groups, such as
religious institutions, non-government, business and community based
organisations and trade unions, have a key role to play in resourcing,
supporting and conducting local social crime prevention programmes. In
particular, these organisations have the responsibility to ensure that
preventing crime within their organisations becomes a priority.
The use of a variety of agencies which co-ordinate their
activities in a concerted effort to prevent crime is the key to the success of
local crime prevention. A multi-agency approach to developing and implementing
crime prevention programmes increases efficiency and effectiveness by pooling
resources and avoiding the duplication of services. Comparative international
experience suggests that real reductions in crime can be achieved in this way.
INSTITUTIONAL REFORM AT NATIONAL LEVEL
As has already been argued, policing in South Africa before
1994 was authoritarian and characterised by weak accountability and a lack of
civilian input into policing policy. The National Commissioner of the South
African Police (SAP) was responsible for policy formulation, budgeting and
operations and the police force thus maintained an extensive degree of
In 1994 the government's assessment of the nature of the SAPS,
and therefore the form that civilian oversight would take, was shaped by the
realities of the immediate transition environment. Therefore civilian
Secretariats were established at national and provincial level to provide
oversight and monitoring over the new SAPS.
These institutional arrangements reflected government's
concern with police commitment to the new democracy. The current context in
which policing policy is made differs from that in 1994. The police need to be
viewed as trusted vehicles of law enforcement in the new democracy. The focus
of accountability is now primarily to ensure effective service delivery to the
public and must be shaped to reflect those in other democracies.
Part of this process entails reforming the system in which
policy planning and budgeting occurs within the Department of Safety and
Security. Achieving this will ensure that South Africa reflects more accurately
how this process is conducted in other democracies. In all democratic states
the determination and allocation of the police budget, where it occurs at
national level, is carried out by non-police or civilian officials who are also
central - in conjunction with political representatives and the police - in
determining policy priorities. Money is then allocated to the operational
police organisation/s who conduct the actual police work. Thus, for example, in
the United Kingdom, the Home Office (following the direction of political
principals) determines high level policing policy and priorities and then
allocates funds to a number of regional police agencies who conduct the
operational police work.
In South Africa this means in effect that the Secretary for
Safety and Security, a civilian appointment outside of the SAPS, responsible
for high level policy advice and support to the Minister - instead of the
National Commissioner of the SAPS as is current practice -should become the
accounting officer for the Department of Safety and Security. Such a system
allows not only an ability to match policy priorities with operational
performance, but also ensures more effective monitoring of the police, while
distancing the police themselves from the political wrangling necessary to
secure their budget. The advantages and principles underlying this approach are
spelt out in more detail below.
ACCOUNTABILITY AND SERVICE DELIVERY
The Minister of Safety and Security is responsible for the
development, monitoring and implementation of policy and is accountable for all
these dimensions. Comparative international experience has shown that conflicts
of interest - particularly between the policy, monitoring and implementation
functions - impact negatively on government’s ability to redirect delivery to
Ensuring effective service delivery and systems of
accountability thus requires a reorganisation of policy, monitoring and
implementation functions. The role of the Minister (supported by the Secretary
for Safety and Security) is to set policy objectives and measure the
effectiveness and efficiency of the SAPS and the National Crime Prevention
Strategy Centre in meeting these targets. By reorganising these functions,
systems of accountability are improved and managerial responsibility is clearly
Such an approach aims at separating departmental service
delivery functions from the determination of strategic policy and the setting
of broad objectives at the political level. It also clarifies roles and
responsibilities within the Department. This is particularly relevant to issues
of safety and security, given the dual functions of policing and social crime
prevention as outlined in the White Paper. Thus, institutional reform is
intended to provide a clear delineation of the roles and responsibilities of
the various actors in the delivery of safety and security, while recognising
that their functions are closely and continuously inter-related.
Principles of institutional reform
The following key principles inform institutional reform:
Appropriate demarcation between political decision making
and operational command. This principle is motivated by the constitutional and
legislative mandate of the Minister to provide positive policy direction in the
form of national policing policy and to account to Parliament for its
implementation. Applying this principle means a separation of the political
policy imperatives of government and operational management and is intended to
ensure that policy of relevance to safety and security does not become the
exclusive preserve of the SAPS, as it was in the past. Also, application of
this principle is intended to ensure that policy advice is geared towards
meeting the needs of the public rather than focusing solely on the needs of the
Structuring the Department of Safety and Security to provide
clear lines of responsibility and accountability and the alignment of policy,
planning and budgeting.
Ensuring relationships based on performance
agreements to guarantee quality service delivery from implementing agencies.
Maintaining one clear line of command, control and
communication within police operational structures to facilitate clear
managerial responsibility for implementation at the national, provincial and
local level of the SAPS. This is motivated by the constitutional and
legislative mandate of the National Commissioner of the SAPS to exercise
executive management and control of the SAPS.
Enhancing the focus on both the core business of the police
as well as the key role of the Department of Safety and Security in delivering
Providing incentives for improved service and disincentives
for inadequate service through both clearer delineation of roles and
responsibilities, and better capacity to monitor service delivery.
The principles outlined above suggest a mode of accountability
based on performance agreements between those responsible for service delivery
and those responsible for policy and regulatory functions (in the latter case,
the Minister supported by the Secretariat). A key element of this arrangement
is thus developing, monitoring and maintaining a professional and
performance-based relationship with those institutions in government tasked
with the provision of law enforcement and the facilitation and delivery of
This approach means that the responsibility and accountability
for the implementation of government policy related to social crime prevention
and policing are allocated to institutions within the state. It also allocates
executive functions to clearly delineate managerial responsibility and
accountability as a means of improving service delivery. In effect, this
approach positions the Minister as the champion of particular outcomes, while
the heads of the Secretariat and SAPS are responsible for managing inputs to
deliver on agreed performance outputs.
The approach allows for:
A clear integration of policy, planning and budgetary
Service delivery structured, via performance agreements (see
below), on business principles to result in optimal resource utilisation.
A phased implementation approach which reduces the
probability of organisational instability.
Flexible budgeting based on business principles.
A performance based incentive system through the creation of
performance management relationships. The envisaged system of performance
agreements would articulate clear indicators against which the performance of
the SAPS and the Secretariat at national and provincial levels, and their
resource needs, could be measured. Such performance agreements would determine
the measurable objectives to be achieved by key senior personnel in the
Secretariat and the SAPS to ensure improved levels of service delivery.
DEPARTMENTAL STRUCTURE: ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Institutional reform of the Department of Safety and Security
at the national level is to be informed by the following outline of broad roles
Minister of Safety and Security
To account to the President, Cabinet and Parliament for the
management and delivery of safety and security services.
To provide, with the support of the Secretary of Safety and
Security, the national policing policy which directs the SAPS and to be
accountable for the implementation of this policy.
To provide, with the support of the Secretary of Safety and
Security, direction for implementing the NCPS and facilitating targeted social
To appropriate from Parliament, with the support of the
Secretary of Safety and Security, the single budget vote for the Department and
to direct the use of the budget which would consist of separate expenditure
allocations for crime prevention and for policing.
Secretary of Safety and Security
The Secretary of Safety and Security will be a public servant
directed by the Minister to function as Head of Department and Accounting
Officer for the Department of Safety and Security. On behalf of the Minister,
the Secretary will take responsibility for the following functions which
constitute the activities of the Department:
Policy, strategy and budgeting: Strategic and indicative
planning, research and the formulation of departmental policy proposals, which,
when approved by the Minister, would guide the activities of the SAPS and
National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre. The internal negotiation,
preparation and allocation of the budget for the Department of Safety and
Security, which includes separate budgets for crime prevention and for
Audit: Monitoring expenditure of the Department"s budget to
ensure alignment with the policies approved by the Minister. Monitoring the
effectiveness and efficiency of the implementation of these policies.
Contracts: The negotiation, development, implementation and
performance control of the performance agreements which direct the functions of
the SAPS and the National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre.
Government support: To provide ministerial support services,
particularly with regard to management of the administrative requirements of
the Minister’s responsibilities towards the Executive Co-ordinating Committee
(ECC), cabinet and other state structures. Also the management and control of
departmental, international, media and stakeholder liaison as well as legal
Communication: To provide a communications capacity to
enhance internal communication within the Department and the implementation of
a communication strategy aimed at informing and mobilising role-players,
stakeholders and partners outside of the Department regarding the delivery of
safety and security services, and in particular, the implementation of the
Departmental issues: To account to the Minister and to
Parliament on Departmental issues and activities from time to time or as
South African Police Service
The objectives of the South African Police Service are to
prevent, combat and investigate crime, maintain public order, protect and
secure the inhabitants of the Republic and their property, and uphold and
enforce the law. The SAPS is headed by a National Commissioner appointed by the
President to fulfil the terms of a performance agreement outlining specific
performance indicators as approved by the Minister of Safety and Security, for
a specified period. This entails the following:
Assuming responsibility for the executive command and
control of the SAPS in the performance of the objectives of the police as set
out in the Constitution. The National Commissioner therefore functions as
accounting officer for the management and expenditure of the budget allocated
to the SAPS.
Providing an effective and efficient policing service in
terms of the specific performance indicators outlined in the performance
agreement which directs the National Commissioner to manage and control the
SAPS to meet specific goals.
Formulating an operational budget for its line and support
functions in terms of the national policing policy articulated by the Minister
and the terms of the National Commissioner’s performance agreement.
Maintaining executive management control and accountability
for this budget and the associated performance agreements.
Ensuring effective and efficient management and control of
police resources, including human resources, to meet the specific goals
articulated by the Minister in the performance agreement.
Focusing, during the next five years, the resources and
activities of the SAPS on the three major policing priorities outlined in the
White Paper, namely the enhancement of: * criminal investigation;
crime prevention through targeted visible policing; and;
service delivery through support to victims of crime.
To account to the Minister and to Parliament on policing
issues and activities from time to time or as requested.
National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre
The National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre will be
responsible for continuing the work of the Department of Safety and Security in
relation to the NCPS, including co-ordinating and facilitating the
Director’s-General and Ministers’ joint decision-making structures.
The detailed function of the Centre as well as related crime
prevention issues will be spelled out in future legislation.
Its head will be appointed on the basis of a performance
agreement by the Department of Safety and Security and will be responsible for:
Researching and developing an accessible resource base
regarding appropriate best practice related to the delivery of crime
Developing social crime prevention policies and initiatives
to facilitate the delivery of crime prevention.
Facilitating delivery of social crime prevention
interventions through negotiation with provincial and local government, the
private sector and organisations of civil society.
Facilitating delivery of targeted social crime prevention
interventions by providing seed funding for which provincial and local
government, non-government and community-based organisations can bid for on a
Developing interventions, through systems analyses, aimed at
dealing with the economic rationale for certain crimes.
Monitoring the effectiveness of social crime prevention
interventions at provincial and local level.
Facilitating and monitoring continual improvements in the
Given that crime prevention functions require co-ordination
between a range of government line functions, a coherent and formalised
relationship should be developed between the NCPSC and a number of government
departments during the consultation phase. This is in any event an outcome
envisaged by the NCPS.
Independent Complaints Directorate
The ICD functions independently of the Department of Safety
and Security and reports directly to the Minister of Safety and Security. The
capacity and public profile of the ICD must be enhanced to ensure it is able to
carry out its mandate effectively. The ICD performs the following functions:
Investigating police misconduct or any offence allegedly
committed by a member of the SAPS.
Investigating any death in police custody or as a result of
Investigating any matter referred to it by the Minister or MEC for Safety and Security.
The Executive Director of the ICD is the accounting officer
for the budget of the ICD which is received directly from Parliament.
For purposes of improving policy development and monitoring in
the Department, it is necessary to strengthen the co-operative relationship
between the ICD and the Secretariat for Safety and Security
INSTITUTIONAL REFORM AT PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL LEVEL
Reforming the structures of safety and security at
provincial and local level to meet the goals of the White Paper Provincial and
local government have a critical role to play in ensuring safer communities. In
particular, provincial government has a key role to play in the monitoring of
the police as well as the co-ordination of a range of agencies to ensure social
Local government has an important role to play in planning
crime prevention initiatives and co-ordinating a range of local agents in
ensuring implementation. This requires greater co-operation between elected
local government and the police service in the determination of local
objectives and priorities.
THE ROLE OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
Institutional reform at the provincial level should be
informed by the principles outlined in Section IV. These are to be viewed as an
affirmation of the roles, functions and powers granted to provincial
governments by the provisions of the Constitution and the South African Police
This legislation also affirms the key principles of a single
line of direction, responsibility and accountability as well as a single line
of command, control and communication within the operational structures of the
The mandated role of provincial government, as outlined in the
Constitution (Section 206.3) is:
To monitor police conduct.
To oversee the effectiveness and efficiency of the police
service, including receiving reports on the police service.
To promote good relations between the police and the
To assess the effectiveness of visible policing.
To liaise with the Cabinet member responsible for policing
with respect to crime and policing in the province.
To give effect to the intention of the legislation, the
monitoring role envisaged for the provinces should be enhanced in terms of
their potential to deliver considered recommendations to inform the development
of national policing policy. Of particular importance in this regard is
monitoring and analysis aimed at assessing the efficiency, effectiveness and
appropriateness of the implementation of national policing policy in the
The purpose of monitoring at provincial level is broadly to
ensure that government policy is adhered to, government objectives are achieved
and that the needs of communities are addressed. This requires a focus on:
The degree to which the police are pursuing the set and
agreed upon priorities and objectives and are achieving any set or agreed upon
Compliance with national policing policy and directives
prescribed by the Minister.
The degree to which the police are rendering an effective
and efficient service in accordance with determined needs.
The effect and impact of a focused monitoring programme based
on national policing policy is critical. Comparative international experience
has shown that adequate monitoring ensures better policy formulation and
Given this, the monitoring function should be integrated with
the indicative planning process at national level.
In order to ensure integration and coherence regarding, in
particular, the monitoring of national policing policy, a closer working
relationship and administrative co-ordination is required between the National
and Provincial Secretariats for Safety and Security.
A national monitoring framework with jointly agreed upon
guidelines will be developed to facilitate this process.
In addition to the monitoring role outlined above, provincial
governments are tasked with the responsibility of leading social crime
prevention in their provinces. The provinces must consolidate and prioritise
social crime prevention initiatives and activities in alignment with national
Provincial crime prevention
To ensure effective crime prevention at provincial level,
provinces should take responsibility for:
Initiating and co-ordinating social crime prevention
Mobilising resources for social crime prevention programmes.
Co-ordinating a range of provincial functions - health,
education, welfare, and local government - to achieve more effective crime
Evaluating and supporting the social crime prevention programmes at local government level.
Implementing and taking joint responsibility for social
crime prevention programmes in areas where local government is poorly resourced
or lacks capacity. This should be done in consultation with local government.
The establishment of public and private partnerships to
support crime prevention.
THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
The decentralisation of policing functions to the lowest
possible level within the SAPS has become a core policy tenet, which informs
national policing policy. This focus on the empowerment of local policing aims
to ensure that the diverse needs of communities are met by innovative responses
from SAPS station commissioners. Thus, decentralisation will grant station
commissioners more autonomy over their human resources and asset management,
policing priorities and the strategies they adopt to meet them. This requires a
greater emphasise by the Department on training and the improvement of
management skills at police station level.
Public fear of crime has led many local governments to begin
to consider ways in which the visible policing resources of the SAPS can be
supplemented. In many cases municipalities have empowered their traffic and
security departments to fight crime by providing visible patrols. Several local
governments are also now considering the establishment of local government
police services or municipal policing. However, this will largely be limited to
major metropolitan areas where the problems are most pressing and the resources
and capacity required for establishing such services are available.
The crime prevention functions of municipal police services
will be primarily exercised through the visible presence of law enforcement
officials by means of point duty, foot, vehicle or other patrols. Thus, the
Durban City Police have operated for many years as an effective and well
trained visible police service which has reduced crime and the fear of crime in
Visible policing by municipal police services will include
responding to complaints and reacting to crime in instances where a delay in
activating a response from the SAPS could lead to loss of life, loss of
property or the escape of perpetrators.
It should be emphasised that the establishment of municipal
police services is not mandatory. Local governments should carefully consider
the financial sacrifice required before taking such a step. Many local
governments operate traffic and security departments, which carry out crime
prevention functions outside of any regulatory framework. In contrast,
legislation on municipal police services will provide an adequate system of
oversight for the functioning of such services. Municipal police service
officers will retain the same powers - that of peace officers - as currently
held by traffic officers.
Where established, municipal police services will be
responsible for the following in their areas of jurisdiction:
Acting as the primary bodies policing road traffic and
Policing municipal by-laws.
Performing visible policing and related crime prevention
In order to ensure that visible policing conducted by
municipal police services is effective, formal co-operation must be initiated
with the SAPS in areas where such services are established. This will be
achieved through joint information systems and the establishment of
co-ordinating structures. It is also essential that adequate systems of
accountability and control - as envisaged in the South African Police Service
Amendment Bill, No.39 of 1998 - be in place.
DELIVERING CRIME PREVENTION AT LOCAL LEVEL
The rationale informing the decentralisation of SAPS policing
services applies also to the delivery of social crime prevention. These
initiatives can only work if they are focused on meeting the specific needs of
particular communities. Crime varies from locality to locality and requires
different solutions in different places to reduce it. While national government
can provide frameworks for encouraging and supporting crime prevention,
implementation must take place at local level.
City and town government is the level at which planning can
take the needs of local communities and their particular crime problems into
account, potentially providing an effective link between local representatives,
municipal departments and the SAPS. Many of the functions of local government
relate, in any event, to issues of local governance. Thus, notwithstanding any
specific interventions, local government has a key role to play in ensuring an
environment less conducive to crime.
Apart from this role however, international experience
suggests that without the co-operation of local government, social crime
prevention initiatives targeted at specific problems seldom succeed on the
ground. Cities and towns should be encouraged to establish strategies for crime
prevention. These should aim not only to ensure internally or externally
initiated crime prevention interventions, but also to align local resources and
development objectives within a crime prevention framework. Crime and crime
prevention should be seen as central to the planning and functions of all
municipal department line functions.
The lack of crime prevention principles in current development
projects initiated by local government is cause for concern. Initially, design
interventions in these areas may amount to little more than assessing the
linkages between urban layout, the positioning of government services, and the
connection between increases and decreases in criminality. While the
formulation of crime prevention principles is currently underway at national
level, there is much to be gained from local co-operation between planners,
architects, community representatives and the police. Development projects
which do not subscribe to crime prevention principles run the risk of
increasing the burden of the State, in particular the justice system.
Local government is well placed - provided the required
resources and capacity are available - to design and implement programmes
targeted at specific crime problems and groups at risk. Such prevention
programmes can either be financially supported by local government itself or
through business, donor and national government funding.
Already a number of cities have begun exploring ways in which
city government can be become active in the field of crime prevention.
Johannesburg, for example, has initiated a Safer Cities programme in
conjunction with the NCPS structures, while Pretoria, Cape Town and Durban are
pursuing similar initiatives.
In sum, local government involvement in crime prevention can
take a variety of forms. These can be broadly summarised into a number of
categories which span a spectrum of functions internal and external to
municipal government. These areas do not exclude each other (indeed, there is a
considerable degree of cross-over between them) and maximum impact will be
achieved by a concentration in all areas. The areas have been ordered, as far
as is possible, ranging from those that require the least financial commitment
to those that require the most.
The local government crime prevention spectrum
The internal prevention of crime within the structures of,
and on the property of, the municipality.
Working with local police in setting joint priorities and
identifying possible areas for local government intervention.
Aligning internal resources and objectives within a crime
Ensuring development projects take account of crime
The co-ordination of crime prevention initiatives operating
within the municipal area to avoid duplication.
The effective enforcement of by-laws to ensure safer and
cleaner environments less conducive to crime.
Effective traffic law enforcement to ensure well-managed and
regulated environments less conducive to criminal activity.
Assisting victims of crime through the provision of
information around what services are available or where capacity exists
providing limited victim support services.
Initiating targeted crime prevention programmes aimed at
specific problems and groups at risk.
The fostering of a crime prevention culture at local level in
the context of limited resources will take time to achieve. The aim of the
White Paper is to begin this process by placing the issue of crime prevention
firmly on the agenda at local level. International experience has shown that
much may be gained from "learning by doing" an incremental approach which
emphasises the development of a culture of innovation and experimentation. Thus
it is envisaged that the shape and structure that crime prevention programmes
or initiatives take at local level across the country may vary from place to
Notwithstanding this, national and provincial government have
a key role to play. Among others, this will include:
Designing and initiating a capacity building programme to
enable municipalities to better incorporate crime prevention issues into the
execution of their normal functions.
Where specific crime prevention programmes are established
the provision of expert guidance, monitoring, training, the provision of
material relating to best-practice and advice related to the obtaining of
donor, business and government funding.
The inclusion of local government inputs into the developing
policy process around crime prevention at local level through the establishment
of local government crime prevention forums at provincial level. Here,
experiences of best-practice can be exchanged and national and provincial
policy processes impacted upon.
THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY POLICE FORUMS
As mentioned earlier, community policing forms the bedrock of
effective law enforcement and crime prevention. Importantly, as has been
demonstrated in South Africa and internationally, problem-oriented partnership
strategies for policing produce positive results in terms of reducing crime.
In fulfilling the crime prevention functions as outlined
above, local government should work in conjunction with Community Police Forums
(CPFs). Indeed, local government and CPFs are uniquely placed to complement
each other. Local government, although police boundaries do not always match
those of the municipal authority, is well placed to work with the area level of
police management (or at least across a number of stations) in setting joint
priorities and objectives in conjunction with community police area boards.
CPFs on the other hand are confined to the precinct of only one police station
area and have a key role to play in, among other areas, the determination of
and participation in crime prevention programmes.
It must be clearly recognised that community police forums
have played a valuable role in ensuring greater co-operation with the SAPS at
local level. This must continue. But given that democratically elected local
government has now been established, it is appropriate that the functions of
CPFs be supplemented by duly elected representatives of local communities. This
is particularly important in the formulation of local policing priorities and
crime prevention initiatives.
Initially, CPFs were established at police stations across the
country to ensure that station commissioners were more accountable to those
they served. This was done primarily to build trust and legitimacy,
particularly in those areas in which the relationship between the police and
the community had been characterised by mistrust and conflict. Many CPFs
function effectively and sound relationships have been built.
One of the positive developments in the creation of CPFs has
been the innovative and supportive partnerships with organisations of civil
society and the SAPS. This partnership approach should now be enhanced in
co-operation with local government. In particular, it is clear that the
relationship between local government and
CPFs should be strengthened to ensure more effective crime
prevention at local level. CPFs should co-operate with local government by:
Jointly setting crime prevention priorities and agreeing
upon strategies to ensure their implementation.
Assisting with the development of targeted social crime
Identifying flashpoints, crime patterns and community
anti-crime priorities and communicating these to local government and the SAPS
and participating in problem solving.
Mobilising and organising community based campaigns and
activities and the resources required to sustain them.
Facilitating regular attendance by local elected
representatives at CPFs.
Given that the form that such partnerships take varies from
place to place, the White Paper does not wish to be overly prescriptive in how
these relationships are shaped. A detailed Policy Framework and Guidelines for
Community Policing was released by the Department in April 1997. This will be
reviewed in consultation with CPFs in order to provide clearer guidelines for
co-operation between local government and CPFs.
More generally however, the National Secretariat, in
consultation with the Provincial Secretariats, will continue to develop
guidelines and investigate issues related to the funding and sustainability of
The diagram below illustrates the relationship between local
government, community police forums and the SAPS. It is clear that the building
of such relationships at local level will take time to achieve. Discussion is
required with the many role-players involved in achieving safety and security
at local level. Among others, the Departments of Transport and Constitutional
Development should be consulted.
DIAGRAM 5: RELATIONSHIPS AT LOCAL LEVEL
COSTING IMPLICATIONS OF THE WHITE PAPER
The White Paper is the over-arching policy for the delivery of
safety and security services over the next five years. It therefore provides
the framework for the implementation of specific programmes and projects to be
taken during this period. Given the high level policy focus of the White Paper,
this section does not provide the details of the implementation of specific
programmes and projects, but rather, suggests a framework for costing the White
Paper. Thus, it is also necessary to undertake an extensive strategy process
that will outline the fixed goals and time frames for action in the short,
medium and longer-term. This will be completed as a matter of urgency.
It should be emphasised that the White Paper recognises that
critical interventions are required to reduce the high levels of crime in the
country as soon as possible. In particular, it is recognised that the public
demand interventions that deliver immediate impact in order to secure a safer
living environment. The White Paper acknowledges this urgency and, in some of
the interventions outlined below, attempts to respond to this. The White Paper
also acknowledges that continued medium and long-term strategic interventions
are required to reduce crime. These should be based on sound research and
analysis, which will determine where interventions will be targeted in the
course of the next five years.
Given that the White Paper is a policy framework, it is
difficult, without detailed analysis, to accurately cost its immediate
implications. What follows is a broad overview of the process in which an
accurate assessment can be made of the cost implications of the White Paper.
This will entail analysing how current expenditure can be re-oriented before
motivating for additional resources. However, given the proposals outlined in
the White Paper regarding institutional reform at national level, greater
detail is provided here in terms of the cost implications of this intervention.
The policy interventions outlined in the White Paper
articulate a back-to-basics approach which emphasises a renewed and enhanced
focus on the core business of the Department: reducing crime through the
improved delivery of policing and the provision of effective crime prevention
Apart from the costing implications, which are outlined in
more detail below, the policy priorities for policing and crime prevention as
set by the White Paper need to inform decision-making at all levels of the
Department and at all spheres of government. Specifically, the overall thrust
in relation to the provision of a better service to the public cannot be easily
costed and will form an integral component of planning at all levels of the
The primary issue addressed in the White Paper is the
reduction of crime in South Africa. In addressing this critical issue, the
Draft White Paper recommends policy interventions in three key areas, namely:
The enhancement of law enforcement.
The provision of crime prevention.
Institutional reform to meet the delivery goals of the White
THE ENHANCEMENT OF LAW ENFORCEMENT
The White Paper prioritises enhancing the law enforcement
capabilities of the Department, through improving the investigative function,
targeted visible policing and victim support. The White Paper therefore
advocates the optimisation of current resources and, particularly, the
acceleration of training and personnel development in these areas. Given the
need to enhance these functions, it is critical that the basic resource needs
are also met.
Crime investigation: Interventions here require improvements
in management systems, physical resources such as nation-wide information
systems, and basic, specialised and management training.
Visible policing: Interventions here require improvements in
crime trend analysis at local level, training and physical resources.
Victim empowerment: In relation to issues of victim
empowerment, much can be achieved through a changed approach and an emphasis on
service delivery at station level. It must be emphasised that this focus on
victim empowerment should integrate with the Victim Empowerment Programme
already running under the auspices of the NCPS. Should additional interventions
be required, they will be funded through existing funds and international
assistance. A number of agreements regarding such assistance are already in
CRIME REDUCTION THROUGH PREVENTION
The strategy for implementing of the crime prevention
interventions in the White Paper must entail a data-driven learning process
aimed at improving analysis of the causes of crime.
This would enable, firstly, an informed analysis of the
external environment and specific types of crime; existing law enforcement and
preventive responses to these specific crime types; and, secondly, the
development of sound policies and strategies to reduce the occurrence of these
crimes. This should be based on continuous learning through interaction with
The aim is to generate new data in order to inform the
development of appropriate strategies to deal with specific high priority
crimes. Further, the data generated in this learning exercise would inform and
guide the building of the Department to ensure substantial improvements in the
efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery over the next five years. This
would also ensure that an integrated approach to the reduction of crime informs
the development of future policy and strategy and that this process becomes
institutionalised in the Department.
This strategic approach therefore has two components:
Importantly, however, sustained analysis around crime
prevention should not be viewed separately from the process in which the
capacity of the Secretariat is reinforced (see below).
It should also be noted that pilot projects in the major
cities, which are currently being funded through allocations from the
Department as well as input from foreign donors, and from which much is being
learned, are already in the process of implementation. Such an integrated and
ongoing approach to the reduction of crime would clearly form an essential
element of empowering the Minister and the Department of Safety and Security to
lead and inform crime prevention strategies at national, provincial and local
level. It should be emphasized that expenditure on informed and targeted crime
prevention that is monitored effectively has substantial long-term saving
benefits for the country. This applies specifically to savings in the criminal
justice and health systems.
The institutional reform outlined in the White Paper enhances
civilian oversight of the Department and integrates its activities. This is
intended to ensure that the Department becomes geared to deliver on its
political mandate and, therefore, that the South African public begins to
receive an efficient value-for-money return on its investment in safety and
It should be noted that a pre-requisite for effective
institutional reform would be a comprehensive audit of the current functions,
capacity and institutional structure of the Department to inform the envisaged
institutional reform and implementation of the White Paper. Such an audit
implies that the functions of the Department be streamlined and clearly
delineated, which requires a process of function rationalisation within the
SAPS and Secretariat.
It is estimated that for the Secretariat, the institutional
reform at national level as outlined in the White Paper would entail a
complement of some 60 line-function staff - approximately 30 members of staff
in addition to the current complement. This would ensure an enhanced capacity
in the following key areas which are currently either under-resourced or
non-existent: policy, planning, monitoring, financial management and efficiency
monitoring, performance evaluation, legal services, communication and the
National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre.
Given the analysis contained in the White Paper, it is clear
that under-resourced civilian oversight over policing and a poor understanding
of crime reduction strategies in the Department has weakened government’s
ability to fight crime.
Resourcing the Department in the manner proposed by the White
Paper will ensure enhanced civilian oversight over policing; an enhanced
analytical capacity to inform policy formulation regarding policing and crime
prevention; a greatly improved ability to audit performance and expenditure on
policing and crime prevention; and, an enhanced strategic leadership capacity
on issues of crime prevention.
The Minister would like to thank the following organisations
for their support and assistance in the process of drafting the White Paper on
Safety and Security: British High Commission Business Against Crime Canadian
High Commission Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research European Union
GTZ Institute for Security Studies International Centre for the Prevention of
Crime Police Research Group (British Home Office) Swedish Embassy United
Nations Development Program
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